Sharaz Najib, who is serving a life sentence, attacked the officer on the landing in C-wing in HMP Wakefield, Leeds Crown Court was told.
The 33-year-old had been told to go back go his cell for lockdown but he told the officer he was going to make a phone call on the afternoon of August 7, last year.
When the officer put her arm across to block his path, he took a step back in an aggressive stance like he was preparing to fight, prosecutor Austin Newman told the court this week.
The office called for back up and when other officers tried to restrain him, he got an arm free and punched the female officer to the head, knocking her down.
He later admitted getting into a fight but said he could not remember punching the female.
She was taken to hospital where she had a minor fracture her cheekbone. She also had black eyes and soft tissue damage to her face.
A personal impact statement was read out to the court where it was heard she had to endure a liquid diet for a months, was struggling to sleep, had reduced sensation in her face and had discolouration around the area where the punch connected.
The court was told that Najib has nine convictions from 16 offences, including multiple robberies dating back to when he was a juvenile, and a conviction for causing actual bodily harm.
In July 2019 he was convicted of rape and robbery and handed a life sentence with a minimum of 10 years.
He has since been moved to HMP Frankland in Durham, where he appeared via video link at Leeds Crown Court this week.
He admitted a charge of maliciously inflicting grievous bodily harm on the prison officer in Wakefield.
Mitigating, Nicholas Worsley, said: "It was spontaneous and short-lived.
"His record does him no credit and this will impact on his assessment by probation in his assessment for his potential for rehabilitation.
"He is contrite, and he apologies to the complainant through me.
"He never meant for this injury to be caused but he accepts he must be punished for it."
The judge, Recorder Anesh Pema said: "You acted in a way that caused a prison officer to seek back up.
"Even with the arrival of those officers you did not back down."
He jailed him for 18 months, which will consecutively to his life sentence, meaning when he is eventually granted parole, his latest sentence will start.