Nobody was hurt, but the incident has led to significant damage to signalling and points equipment, which means five of the station’s eight platforms are closed.
Network Rail workers have been on site overnight and an emergency operations plan has been put in place, with three platforms made available to enable a very limited service to run.
But having just three platforms available for use means there will be a significant number of unavoidable cancellations, with other services subject to severe disruption.
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As is standard practice with any train derailment, inspectors from the Rail Accident Investigation Bureau will have to examine the scene before the train can be removed.
This incident is affecting CrossCountry, East Midlands Railway, Northern and TransPennine Express passengers.
Anyone planning on travelling on routes through Sheffield today is urged to check before travelling via National Rail Enquiries or with their train operator. Ticket acceptance and some bus replacement services are in place.
Matt Rice, Route Director for Network Rail’s North and East Route, said: “We’re really sorry about the huge amount of disruption that will be caused to passengers today.
“Thankfully, train derailments are very rare, but when they do happen we have to act with utmost caution to protect the safety of everyone using the railway.
“We will have our people working around the clock to get the station fully reopened as quickly as possible, but it’s going to be a complex problem that won’t be resolved immediately.”
The derailment happened at about 2:45am, with a train carrying cement coming off the tracks while passing through platform one at the station. It was a slow speed derailment, but multiple carriages of the 34-car train have come off the tracks.
"There is no indication as to the cause at this time."