The new base is being built at Silkwood Industrial Park, near junction 40 on the M1.
The £3.76m project could take up to 52 weeks to complete and the station is expected to be operating from November next year.
Firefighters will then relocate from their current base on Dale Street, Ossett.
Coun Tracey Austin, West Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service vice chairwoman, carried out the ground breaking ceremony at the site on Wednesday.
She said: “I am pleased to have carried out the honours for the new fire station, which will facilitate Ossett and surrounding areas.
“This marks the start of a very exciting project in Wakefield district and I am looking forward to seeing the new station taking shape.”
It will have state-of-the-art facilities including a gym, kitchen and a young firefighters training facility on the ground floor.
The base will also have six study bedrooms, and a multi-purpose room, which can be used by the public.
Coun Judith Hughes, West Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Authority chairwoman, said: “The new state-of-the-art fire station in Ossett represents a significant investment in the community.
“The new station shows that, despite financial challenges, we are committed to providing a first class, modern fire service.”