The Care Quality Commission (CQC) has placed Highfield Care Centre, in Castleford, in special measures.
Inspectors said there "Continued to be a high number of falls and physical altercations between people" at the home, in Allerton Bywater.
They said their visits across separate days in August and September had been prompted by concerns about such incidents, which they were told were going "unwitnessed".
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A CQC report on Highfield said that while staff were caring, they were overstretched and communal areas were occasionally left unsupervised.
It suggested there was a "lack of learning" from falls and fights and that they generally involved "the same people".
Inspectors said that there were 14 separate occasions over a four-week period when staffing levels were below what was deemed necessary by the interim manager of the service.
The report detailed how the home's previous manager had left in July, only their recently recruited replacement to leave "during the inspection".
This left the deputy manager in interim charge of the service, which was caring for 59 residents.
Inpsectors also said repairs and refurbishment were needed in some areas, adding: "This included the main kitchen and repairs to a water damaged ceiling.
"There was no full refurbishment plan in place and no management oversight of how this would be done."
However, the home was praised for the way it applied Covid protocols, including using PPE effectively, preventing visitors from becoming infected and admitting new residents safely.
The report also said: "People told us they liked the staff and said they were kind and caring. People shared their positive experiences of living at the service.
"They said they were treated with dignity and respect by staff."
Burlington Care, which runs the home, has been contacted for comment but is yet to respond.
Local Democracy Reporting Service